Call Us 07487559670

57 Stroud Road, London, N4 3EG

09:30a.m to 07.00p.m Monday to Friday

Hmrc Self Assessment Enquiry

HMRC (Her Majesty's Revenue and Customs) in the UK serves a critical role in monitoring tax compliance. Understanding the different types of HMRC inquiries is essential for taxpayers to navigate these processes effectively.

HMRC Enquiries

HMRC's increasing inquiries targeting self-assessment taxpayers demand cautious handling. While HMRC's scrutiny aims for tax compliance, not all inquiries are initiated using appropriate powers. It's crucial for all clients to exercise prudence before responding to an HMRC enquiry.

Navigating HMRC enquiries demands vigilance and understanding. Seek informed advice to ensure the proper handling of HMRC inquiries, as inaccurate or hasty responses can lead to unintended consequences. Awareness and guidance play pivotal roles in effectively addressing HMRC enquiries, safeguarding against potential complications in the assessment process.

Find out more in our guide : HMRC Self Assessment Investigation

When HMRC Opens an Enquiry?

HMRC initiates inquiries, often termed "compliance checks," yearly to verify accurate completion of tax returns and disclosures. These routine checks aim to ensure tax compliance and accuracy within the tax filing process.

Routine checks, HMRC can also open inquiries randomly. This approach aims to deter tax evasion and foster public confidence by demonstrating the fairness and integrity of the tax system. These random inquiries serve as a preventive measure, discouraging non-compliance and reinforcing trust in the tax system's equitable operation. Understanding these triggers for HMRC inquiries is crucial, highlighting the need for accuracy and compliance in tax filings to mitigate the possibility of inquiries being opened.

How Many Years Can Hmrc Go Back Into an Investigation?

Once HMRC opens an enquiry into your tax affairs, they typically have a 4-year period from the end of the relevant tax year to issue a discovery assessment.

In cases where HMRC can demonstrate that a loss of tax resulted from careless or deliberate actions (i.e., dishonesty) by the taxpayer or their agent, they can proceed with a "discovery assessment" for the missing tax.

The rules regarding discovery assessments can be intricate. Generally, the standard 4-year period extends to 6 years if the taxpayer is found to be careless. However, if dishonesty is established, HMRC can go back up to 20 years. These timeframes underscore the critical importance of accuracy and compliance in tax affairs, as they determine the potential retrospective reach of HMRC's investigations into tax matters.

Time Frame for Opening an Enquiry

HMRC's enquiry window begins once a client submits their tax return. Generally, HMRC holds a 12-month period from the tax return's due date to issue an enquiry notice. For instance, for the 2021/22 tax year, the enquiry window extends until January 31, 2024. HMRC can send a Notice of Enquiry letter within this duration.

However, if the tax return is filed after the due date, the enquiry window extends to the next quarter following the one-year submission anniversary.

In cases where an incomplete tax return triggers an enquiry, HMRC holds authority for four years from the end of the tax year to issue a Discovery Assessment (S34(1) TMA 1970). This assessment is permissible if HMRC can demonstrate that the taxpayer/agent's actions caused a tax loss, prompting the need for the Discovery Assessment for the missing tax.

How Are They Different Depending on Behaviour?

The duration for issuing an Enquiry Notice by HMRC can extend depending on the behavior observed in the tax return. When HMRC suspects careless or deliberately inaccurate completion of the tax return, they may initiate "Discovery Assessments." These investigations can span back up to 20 years, contingent upon behavior.

Handling HMRC Enquiries: Practical Steps and Rights

Facing an enquiry from HMRC can be unnerving, but it doesn't necessarily imply wrongdoing or firm evidence against your client's tax affairs. Understanding rights can alleviate some stress.

Firstly, verify if HMRC complies with the time limits for opening an enquiry. If not, non-response might be valid.

Secondly, assess the reasonableness of HMRC's information requests. Provide only what's reasonably necessary to conclude the enquiry.

Challenging HMRC on specific information requests is acceptable. Clients aren't obligated to provide irrelevant or confidential documents, as demonstrated in Long v Revenue and Customs Comrs (2023).

Remember, HMRC can't conduct fishing expeditions; challenge inconsequential requests.

Lastly, adhere to correspondence timescales or negotiate alternatives with HMRC. Collaborate while safeguarding your client's rights and obligations. Working within these guidelines empowers clients to handle enquiries efficiently and protect their interests.

Find out more in our guide : How to File Self Assessment Tax Return

Appealing a Decision

When clients disagree with HMRC's appeal decision, they have the option to request a statutory review of the decision. These reviews and appeals are typically overseen by review officers possessing expertise in tax, legal, and accountancy fields within HMRC.

The review process offers an avenue to settle disputes without resorting to time-consuming and expensive tribunal hearings. Review officers, uninvolved in the initial decision-making, offer an objective and impartial review service. They meticulously assess decision alignment with legislation, technical guidelines, policies, and practices.

This process acts as a crucial checkpoint, providing a chance for reassessment and potential resolution before escalating to a tribunal hearing. Leveraging the review procedure may aid in addressing concerns and achieving resolution without the added complexities and expenses associated with formal tribunal proceedings.

Key Focus Areas in an HMRC Inquiry

During an inquiry, HMRC focuses on specific aspects to ensure tax compliance and accuracy in tax returns. The areas of scrutiny may include:

  1. HMRC examines the accuracy of disclosures within the tax return to verify compliance with tax laws and regulations.

  2. Ensuring all relevant information is provided and accurately documented within the tax return.

  3. Verification of income sources declared in the tax return to ascertain accurate reporting.

  4. Scrutinizing expense claims to confirm their legitimacy and compliance with tax regulations.

  5. Ensuring adherence to tax laws, regulations, and guidelines in all aspects of the tax return.

  6. Identifying anomalies or irregularities that might indicate potential non-compliance or inaccuracies.

Understanding these focus areas aids taxpayers in preparing and maintaining accurate and compliant tax returns, minimising the likelihood of queries or discrepancies during an HMRC inquiry.

How Can We Help?

At FCCA Accounts, our team specializes in professional consulting and boasts extensive expertise in handling various types of HMRC investigations. We offer comprehensive assistance to efficiently manage the investigative process, striving for cost-effectiveness at every step. Your understanding of taxpayer rights and access to precise technical guidance from a Tax Consultant are pivotal in determining the inquiry's outcome. We also provide the Tax return LondonVAT Return Services in London and Accountants in London

Each investigation is approached uniquely, addressing specific case nuances and requirements. Our goal is to provide tailored support aligned with your individual circumstances. If you or your clients require assistance in navigating HMRC investigations, please don't hesitate to contact us. 


Navigating HMRC inquiries and the internal appeal process demands a thorough understanding of protocols, rights, and documentation. Effective management of inquiries and appeals ensures a smoother experience for taxpayers.


Can HMRC randomly select taxpayers for inquiries?

Yes, HMRC can conduct random selection inquiries as part of their routine checks to verify tax returns. These inquiries aim to ensure tax compliance across a wide spectrum of taxpayers.

Is it necessary to seek professional representation for appeals?

It's not mandatory to seek professional representation for appeals. However, it can significantly benefit the appeal process, especially in complex cases. Professionals bring expertise and guidance that can bolster the strength of your appeal.

What are the typical timelines for the internal appeal process?

The timelines for the internal appeal process can vary based on the nature and complexity of the case. Generally, HMRC aims to resolve appeals within a reasonable timeframe, but it's advisable to inquire about specific timelines upon initiating the appeal.

Are there penalties for failing to comply with HMRC inquiries?

Yes, there can be penalties for failing to comply with HMRC inquiries. Penalties may vary depending on the circumstances and severity of non-compliance. It's essential to respond to HMRC inquiries promptly and accurately to avoid potential penalties.

We Are Proud to Say, FCCA Accounts is Your Best Financial Advisor.

Accreditions & Memberships!

  • logo
  • logo
  • logo
  • logo
  • logo
  • logo
  • logo
  • logo
  • logo
  • logo
  • logo
  • logo
  • logo
  • logo
  • logo
  • logo
  • logo
  • logo